today in black history

May 28, 2023

Educator and health advocate Betty Shabazz, wife of Malcolm X, was born on this date in 1936 in Detroit, Michigan.

Reference Library

The Reference Library is an assortment of research reports, briefing papers, fact sheets, journal and newspaper articles, and other media to assist you in furthering your understanding of the issues we cover on

African American Males and Criminal Justice, 1990

The Sentencing Project

The Sentencing Project analyzes data from 1990 to explore the disproportionate impact of the criminal justice system on Black men in the United States.

Download this document

Alternatives to Incarceration

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies

The Dellums Commission examines alternatives to incarceration as a means to reduce the numbers of Blacks imprisoned in the United States.

Download this document

Unlocking America

JFA Institute

The JFA Institute explores the consequences of mass incarceration in the United States.

Download this document

Does Parole Work?

Urban Institute

The Washington, D.C. based Urban Institute looks at the parole system and questions its effectiveness.

Download this document

Call to Action: Prisoner Reentry in Three Cities

Public Private Ventures

Public Private Ventures (PPV) compares prisoner reentry efforts in three cities.

Download this document

Injustice Against African Americans, 2007


The NAACP reports on acts of injustice against Black Americans in 2007.

Download this document

Justice Reinvestment, 2003

Open Society Institute

The Open Society Institute(OSI)examines the potential savings in redirecting criminal justice dollars to communities most impacted by mass incarceration.

Download this document

Mayoral Policy Caucus on Prisoner Reentry

City of Chicago

A 2006 report from the City of Chicago detailing the Daley administration's felon reentry initiative.

Download this document